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The Penny-Farthing: A High-Wheeled Wonder of the Victorian Era

In the annals of cycling history, few bicycles have captured the imagination and left as indelible a mark as the penny-farthing. Also known as the "high wheeler" or "ordinary," this iconic bicycle, with its towering front wheel and diminutive rear wheel, epitomized the spirit of innovation and adventure that characterized the late Victorian era. In this article, we will explore the origins, mechanics, and enduring legacy of the penny-farthing, and how it paved the way for the modern bicycles we know and love today.


The Birth of the High Wheeler

The penny-farthing emerged in the 1870s, a time of rapid technological advancement and cultural change. Its unique design was a response to the limitations of earlier bicycles, such as the "boneshaker," which were heavy, uncomfortable, and difficult to ride.

The key innovation of the penny-farthing was its large front wheel, which could measure up to 60 inches (1.5 meters) in diameter. This design was based on a simple principle: the larger the wheel, the greater the distance covered with each rotation of the pedals. By increasing the size of the front wheel, cyclists could achieve higher speeds and a smoother ride.

The name "penny-farthing" is derived from British coinage of the time. The large front wheel resembled a penny, while the smaller rear wheel was likened to a farthing, a coin worth one-quarter of a penny.

Mechanics and Riding Experience

The penny-farthing's distinctive appearance was not merely a quirk of design but a reflection of the mechanical principles that governed its operation. The large front wheel was directly connected to the pedals, creating a "fixed-gear" system. This meant that the cyclist's feet were in constant motion, and there was no coasting or freewheeling.

Riding a penny-farthing required a great deal of skill, balance, and courage. The high seat positioned the rider nearly five feet above the ground, making mounting and dismounting a challenge. To get on, riders had to run alongside the bicycle and vault onto the seat while simultaneously pedaling. Dismounting involved a similar leap of faith, with riders jumping off the seat and landing on their feet.

Despite the inherent risks, experienced penny-farthing riders could achieve impressive speeds, often exceeding 15 miles per hour (24 kilometers per hour). The large front wheel also provided a surprisingly smooth ride, as it could absorb bumps and uneven terrain better than smaller-wheeled bicycles.

The Pioneers of the Penny-Farthing

The development of the penny-farthing was a collaborative effort, with contributions from inventors and manufacturers across Europe and the United States. However, two names stand out as particularly influential in the history of the high wheeler.

Eugène Meyer

Eugène Meyer, a Frenchman, is often credited as the father of the penny-farthing. In 1869, he patented a wire-spoke tension wheel with individually adjustable spokes, a design that would become a hallmark of the penny-farthing.

James Starley, an English inventor, also played a significant role in the evolution of the high wheeler. He began producing bicycles based on the French "boneshaker" design but gradually increased the size of the front wheel, leading to the development of the true penny-farthing.

The Cultural Impact of the Penny-Farthing The penny-farthing was more than just a mode of transportation; it was a cultural icon that reflected the values and aspirations of the Victorian era. It symbolized technological progress, personal freedom, and the spirit of adventure.

The popularity of the penny-farthing coincided with the birth of cycling as a sport and recreational activity. Riding clubs and races sprang up across Europe and the United States, with daring young men (and occasionally women) showcasing their skills on the high wheeler.

The Legacy of the Penny-Farthing Despite its popularity, the penny-farthing's reign was relatively short-lived. By the late 1880s, the "safety bicycle," with its equal-sized wheels, chain drive, and lower center of gravity, had begun to supplant the high wheeler as the bicycle of choice.

However, the penny-farthing's influence on cycling history cannot be overstated. It paved the way for the development of modern bicycles, inspiring generations of inventors and engineers to refine and improve upon its design.

Today, the penny-farthing remains a beloved symbol of a bygone era, celebrated by enthusiasts and collectors around the world. Its unique silhouette and rich history continue to capture the imagination, reminding us of the ingenuity, courage, and passion that have always been at the heart of cycling culture.


The penny-farthing, with its towering front wheel and daring riders, left an indelible mark on the late 19th century and the history of cycling. It embodied the spirit of innovation and adventure that characterized the Victorian era, pushing the boundaries of what was possible on two wheels.

Although its reign was brief, the penny-farthing's legacy endures. It laid the foundation for the modern bicycles we ride today, inspiring generations of cyclists to embrace the freedom, exhilaration, and sense of accomplishment that comes with conquering the open road.

As we look back on the history of the penny-farthing, we are reminded of the power of human ingenuity and the enduring appeal of the bicycle as a symbol of progress, independence, and the indomitable human spirit. So let us celebrate this iconic high-wheeled wonder and the pioneers who rode it, for they paved the way for the cycling revolution that continues to shape our world today.